Later studies by Guo and colleagues investigated MAOA variants in American boys in grades 7 to 12, and demonstrated a genetic basis for severe aggressive behavior seen at school. Monoamine oxidase MAO-A is an enzyme that functions inactivating neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine and serotonin in the brain.
This receptor is coded by the DRD2 gene, that is involved in governs physiologic functions related to locomotion, hormone production, and drug abuse.
The dopamine transporter DAT1which is encoded by the SLC6A3 gene, mediates the active reuptake and inactivation of dopamine from the synapse and is a principal regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the early s, researchers linked low levels of MAO-A with increased frequencies of antisocial behavior, specifically when individuals had a history of being mistreated during childhood.
But until Genetics and juveniles, no genes had been shown to contribute to severe or recidivistic violent behaviors Genetics and juveniles as homicide.
Experts caution that although these genetic markers were not found in non-violent offenders, it probably is unrealistic to think that a couple of genes by themselves could code for violence or crime. Environmental influences including stress, substance abuse, diet, sleep quality and social relationships also affect the brain.
According to the Finnish authors, MAOA deficiency could result in "dopamine hyperactivity" especially when an individual drinks alcohol or takes drugs such as amphetamines. Cadherin 13 gene variant CDH13 a gene that encodes neuronal membrane adhesion protein.
The serotonin system, which is involved in impulse control, affect regulation, sleep, and appetite. DAT1 normally limits the level and duration of dopamine receptor activation, thus controlling synaptic dopamine levels.
DAT1 gene Many other studies on genetic variants and aggression have focused on the role of dopamine and its receptors and transport sites. Changes in the expression of specific genes in the brain -such as MAOA, DAT1 and DRS2- can affect neurotransmitter levels, which, in turn, influences complex functions such as intelligence, mood and memory.
Aggressive behavior in humans has also been linked with other genes, including variants of the androgen receptor gene AR and the catechol-O-methyltransferase COMPT gene —also responsible of breaking down dopamine.
This may yield to a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others, and may commit violent criminal acts.
This gene was previously associated with substance abuse and ADHD. Nature and nurture Both our genotype and the environmental factors to which we are exposed to throughout life contribute to shaping our brain functions.
Garen Wintemute, the epidemiology of firearm violence has had a mortality rate that remained unchanged for more than a decade, making this issue a huge and costly public health problem in the United States.
Although mass killings get the most press, by far, the main cause of firearm deaths in the USA is suicide, and not due to combat fatalities or homicides.
The MAOA gene —located in the X chromosome- is also known as the warrior gene, since abnormal versions of the gene often result in aggressive behaviors. Genetic Background of Extreme Violent Behavior.
These and other studies suggest that when subjected to an abusive childhood, individuals with low -MAO-A expression has are at an increased risk of developing Anti-Social Personality Disorder. The prevalence of violence in our society has motivated biomedical researchers, sociologists and psychologists to look for genetic markers, predictors and causes for this destructive human behavior.
Interestingly, this line of thinking is supported by a study published this summer in Molecular Psychiatry: In the absence of sufficient levels of MAO, these neurotransmitters accumulate in neurons, which have been correlated with extreme aggressive behaviors.
Violent genes In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial repeat offenders. Lately, biosocial research has made big strides deciphering the influences of age and gender and is beginning to gain insight on why some individuals but not others become extremely aggressive in the presence of different levels of social risk.PUBLICATIONS.
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